By Martin Haspelmath
The sequence builds an in depth choice of top of the range descriptions of languages around the globe. every one quantity deals a accomplished grammatical description of a unmarried language including absolutely analyzed pattern texts and, if acceptable, a thesaurus and different suitable details that's to be had at the language in query. There are not any regulations as to language kin or quarter, and even though detailed cognizance is paid to hitherto undescribed languages, new and invaluable remedies of higher identified languages also are incorporated. No theoretical version is imposed at the authors; the single criterion is a excessive commonplace of medical caliber.
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Extra resources for A Grammar of Lezgian
These are characteristic of the Samur dialect group. There is even one word in the standard language with such a consonant: maiw /macfew/, plural mac'war /ma'tfwar/ 'astragal', as well as the sound-symbolic words c'wärq' 'slap in the face', ö'wäq'räq' 'click' (Mejlanova 1964:387); —the voiced uvular stop /g/; —the voiced velar fricative /γ/; —the epiglottal fricatives Λ/ and /h/. The aspirated labialized alveolar affricate /tshw/ is part of the system but is extremely rare (Mejlanova 1970:40). It occurs at least in the Güne dialect form /rytshwer/ 'grass snakes' (standard rilcer /rytsher/).
The medium of instruction in the city schools is exclusively Russian, and the Daghestanian languages are not even taught as a subject. In Maxaikala, Russian is the dominating language outside of the home, and it is increasingly used even at home by the younger generation, not only in families with linguistically mixed marriages. The resurgence of national self-awareness in the wake of the liberation from the totalitarian regime in the late 1980s has recently created some new interest in the native languages (as well as Arabic), but it remains to be seen whether it will lead to a reversal of the pattern of slow decline of Lezgian.