By Heike Kahlert, Fritz Scholz
Understanding acid-base equilibria made effortless for college students in chemistry, biochemistry, biology, environmental and earth sciences. fixing chemical difficulties, be it in schooling or in genuine existence, usually calls for the certainty of the acid-base equilibria at the back of them. in keeping with decades of educating adventure, Heike Kahlert and Fritz Scholz current a robust instrument to satisfy such demanding situations. they supply an easy advisor to the basics and functions of acid-base diagrams, warding off complicated arithmetic. This textbook is richly illustrated and has complete colour all through. It bargains studying beneficial properties similar to boxed effects and a set of formulae.
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2). 1 Very Strong Acids in High Concentration Very strong acids possess pKa values smaller than zero. , log C HCl ¼ À1). Of course, Eq. (49) must hold: cH3 Oþ ¼ cOHÀ þ cBÀ (49) This excludes the fact that the real pH is situated on the right side of the crossing point P1 in Fig. 32, as there the sum of cOHÀ þ cBÀ is always larger than cH3 Oþ . The real pH must be situated slightly left to P1, as the following reason shows. The overall H3 Oþ concentration is the sum of what was formed in reaction equation (1) and reaction equation (2).
1 Weak Acids in High Concentration Figure 41 depicts the pH-logci diagram of an ammonium chloride solution at À1 mol LÀ1. C HB ¼ 10 The charge balance cH3 Oþ ¼ cOHÀ þ cBÀ (49) shows that the pH is somewhat left of the pH-coordinate of P1 in Fig. 41, because on the right side of P1 the sum cOHÀ þ cBÀ is always larger than cH3 Oþ . The equilibrium concentration of H3 Oþ is caused by the protolysis of HB and also by the autoprotolysis of water. 3 Â 10À9 mol LÀ1 (see point P2). This is a negligible concentration compared to that of BÀ (8 Â 10À6 mol LÀ1), and hence one can write cH3 Oþ % cBÀ (64) This means that the pH-coordinate of the crossing point of the H3 Oþ and BÀ lines gives the pH of the solution with a very satisfying precision.
1 mol LÀ1: the aqua-complex of sodium is a very weak Brønsted acid, and therefore only the protonation of formate ions can affect the pH. The charge balance gives for this base solution: cH3 Oþ ¼ cOHÀ À cHB (62) This equation indicates that the pH must be higher than the pH of point P1 in Fig. 39, as otherwise the sum of cH3 Oþ þ cHB would be larger than cOHÀ . It also holds that the equilibrium concentration of HB is much larger than the equilibrium concentration of H3 Oþ , and thus Eq. (62) can be simplified and gives: cHB % cOHÀ (78) The pH of that sodium formate solution can be taken from the diagram as the pH-coordinate of the crossing point of the OHÀ and HB lines (point P1 in Fig.