By R.B. Jansen
This complete instruction manual covers numerous elements of dam expertise and gives case histories which are reviewed to illustrate ideas and techniques of proved worth. additionally, recognition is given to functional points of layout, development, operation and rehabilitation.
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As a fingerprint they did not analyse solely retene but accompanied by other indicators such as cadalene. Summing up the relative contributions of these parameters defined a more general ‘higher plant parameter’ HPP. The relative abundance of HPP was correlated successfully with paleoclimatic conditions and global sea level. 2 Selected Diagenetic Transformations 41 Excursus: Abietic acid, colophonium and retene Resins of conifers are technically treated by water steam distillation in order to obtain turpentine oil.
24 General scheme of diagenetic pathways of steroids (modified and simplified after Mackenzie et al. 1982; Killops and Killops 2005; Peakmann and Maxwell 1988; van KaamPeters et al. 1998) The diagenetic pathway comprises defunctionalization, shifts and following hydration of double bonds. g. C20) are observable. This pathway corresponds well with an already described diagenetic pathway of β-amyrin (see Sect. 2, Fig. 4 Diagenetic Pathways of Steroids and Their Application as Biomarker 53 An alternative route is evident under specific depositional conditions.
Both different pathways lead to the same diagenesis product, the tetrahydroretene (THR). As the last step the third ring is dehydrogenated and contemporarily demethylated to form a phenanthrene system with the typical 7-methyl and 3-isopropyl substitution. This so-called retene is the thermodynamically stable end product of the diagenetic pathway of abietinic acid, in which the ring system, one methyl substituent and the isopropyl group are preserved. On the contrary, some structural information and properties have been lost, comprising (i) the stereochemical configuration at three bridging ring carbon atoms, (ii) the carboxyl and one methyl group attached to a bridging carbon atom as well as (iii) two double bonds and information on their position.