Advanced Ta-Based Diffusion Barriers for Cu Interconnects by Rene Hubner

By Rene Hubner

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The evaluation of the diffusion barrier effectiveness necessitates the determination of the Cu contents in the barrier layer, the dielectric, and the Si substrate after thermal treatment. For this purpose, chemical-analytical methods for a selective wet-chemical etching of the different materials as well as for the evaluation of the Cu concentration in each etch solution were developed. All analyses started with etching away the Cu cap layer using 5 % ammonium persulfate solution. In a first experiment, the barrier layer and SiO2 were dissolved together by 10 % hydrofluoric acid and analyzed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) using an AAS6 vario tool (Analytik Jena).

Ii) Particular atomic species leave the barrier region and diffuse into copper resulting in a lower crystallization temperature caused by slight changes of the Ta-Si-N composition. In this regard, the above-discussed Ta diffusion might contribute to an accelerated Thermal Stability of Ta-Based Diffusion Barriers … 53 crystallization. (iii) Due to the presence of the Cu/barrier interface, heterogeneous nucleation is very likely. In this case, the nucleation energy is significantly reduced compared to homogeneous nucleation [241].

5418 Å) and a Philips X’Pert Pro diffractometer equipped with X-ray mirror, Eulerian cradle, collimator, and graphite monochromator. 1 mm wide slit was placed between the collimator and the graphite monochromator to enhance the angular resolution in 2θ. 125 mm thick Ni foil was automatically introduced into the primary beam to attenuate intensities higher than a critical level. 1 [209]. 1 nm, respectively. 1 nm. For sensitive phase analysis of the Tabased diffusion barrier layers, glancing angle XRD measurements were performed at incidence angle ω = 2°.

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