By Jung-yao Lu
The comparative research of historic linguistics specializes in reconstructing old styles in accordance with diachronic documents and typological information from numerous languages or dialects in a language workforce. the final word objective of the comparative reconstruction which calls for major cross-linguistic commentary and theoretical reasoning is to illustrate the ancient means of language adjustments. This publication considers the diachronic improvement of either the chinese and the Naxi language, focusing really upon six contentious linguistic matters which are linked to a variety of linguistic adjustments in so much parts of the grammar of those languages, together with phonological alterations, semantic adjustments, syntactic adjustments, and contact-induced adjustments. those linguistic concerns are: tonal splits in proto-checked syllables and subgrouping of Loloish; the semantic improvement of go back in chinese language; the semantic improvement of soak up chinese language; the improvement of agentive passive markers in convinced dialects of chinese language; definiteness and nominalization, relativization, and genitivization in chinese language; and the improvement of nominalization, relativization, and genitivization in Naxi. This quantity offers new tools and views wherein those matters will be analyzed and resolved at the foundation of typological and diachronic proof. It makes use of cross-linguistic info from chinese language and the Tibeto-Burman languages in an effort to reconstruct a number of diachronic advancements in chinese language and Naxi.
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Extra info for An Investigation of Various Linguistic Changes in Chinese and Naxi
4 for details. Note that there is a basic division among the Wu dialects: the final stop (-p, -t, and -k) in Proto-Chinese (hereafter *C) have merged to a single manifestation, interpreted as a glottal stop in certain Wu dialects, such as Suzhou, Wuxi, and Shanghai; the checked syllables in other Wu dialects, such as in Wenzhou dialect, have completely lost the final stop and have become an open syllable CV. 4 below are available in Appendices D and E. The pattern of tonal “flip-flop” can be defined as “the expression reversal of pitch value for cases in which a higher pitch later developed into a lower pitch and vice versa” (Yue-Hashimoto 1986:162).
13. 14. The *checked syllable with voiceless initial in Mandarin, Xiang, & Gan 1 pen (ㅄ) YZ 4 NJ 5 CD 31 KM 31 CS 24 NC 5 2 peel () 4 5 31 31 24 5 3 pick (᪈) 4 5 31 31 24 5 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 bamboo(ㄩ) color (㢢) snow (䴚) rule (ቪ) holiday (㢲) pigeon (呭) horn (䀂) 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 31 31 31 31 31 31 31 31 31 31 31 31 31 31 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 5 5 5 5 5 5 In summary, based on the discussion above, it is clear that all of the patterns of tonal splits including “regularity,” “flip-flop,” “irregularity,” and “un-split” occur in Chinese.
To demonstrate Bradley’s genetic relationship between Nahsi and *L, it is necessary to define a language called “Proto-Naish” (Bradley’s terminology) which is the parent language of Naxi and Mosuo. 2, the common ancestor “Proto-Burmo-Qiangic” of both *LB and *Na-Qiangic can be subdivided into four language branches: Proto-Loloish, Proto-Burmish, Proto-Naish, and Proto-Qiangic. *LB and *Na are siblings, equidistant from their common ancestor. Therefore, the Naxi language, which was derived from Proto-Naish, is excluded from not only Loloish but also Lolo-Burmese.