Circuits

Analog Fundamentals: A Systems Approach by Thomas L. Floyd

By Thomas L. Floyd

Analog basics: A structures Approach presents specified insurance of analog units and circuits with a structures emphasis. Discrete linear units, operational amplifiers, and different linear built-in circuits, are all lined with much less emphasis at the person equipment, and extra dialogue on how those units are integrated into greater circuits and systems.

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Analog Fundamentals: A Systems Approach

Analog basics: A structures procedure presents detailed assurance of analog units and circuits with a structures emphasis. Discrete linear units, operational amplifiers, and different linear built-in circuits, are all coated with much less emphasis at the person equipment, and extra dialogue on how those units are included into greater circuits and platforms.

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You will be introduced to pn junctions, an important concept essential for the understanding of diode and transistor operation. Diode characteristics are introduced, and you will learn how to use diodes in various applications. We discuss converting ac to dc by the process known as rectification and introduce the integrated circuit (IC) regulator. You will also learn about diode-limiting circuits and dc restoring (clamping) circuits. In addition to rectifier diodes, you will be introduced to zener diodes, varactor diodes, light-emitting diodes, and photodiodes.

SOLUTION The open circuit ac voltage is the Thevenin voltage; thus, Vth = 60 mV. The Thevenin resistance can be found indirectly using the voltage-divider rule. The oscilloscope input impedance is considered the load resistance, RL, in this case. 0 M⍀ - 1b = 10 M⍀ a VRL 40 mV The equivalent transducer circuit is shown in Figure 1–16. 0 M⍀ Vth 60 mV FIGURE 1–16 PRACTICE EXERCISE Draw the Norton’s equivalent circuit for the same transducer. As you know, an analog quantity is one with continuous values and most quantities in nature are analog.

Copyright © Tektronix, Inc. ) Many new DMMs offer special features, such as continuity testing and diode checking, and may include capacitance and frequency measurements. While DMMs are excellent test instruments, the VOM (volt-ohm-milliammeter) has some advantages (for example, spotting trends faster than a digital meter). Although generally not as accurate as a DMM, a VOM has very small capacitance to ground, and it is isolated from the line voltage. Also, because a VOM is a passive device, it will not tend to inject noise into a circuit under test.

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