By Douglas Perry, Harry Foster
Meant for layout engineers, this publication introduces common verification innovations, compares them with formal verification concepts, and offers directions for growing formal excessive point requirement. The authors speak about formal verification strategies for either utilized Boolean and sequential verification, formal estate checking, the method of constructing a proper try out plan, and nation aid ideas. The appendices record frequent PSL statements for prime point standards and comparable standards laid out in process Verilog syntax.
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Usually on power-up an FPGA device will download the data stream into on-chip static RAM, as shown in Fig. 9. 9 Data Loaded into an FPGA FPGA Macrocells RAM 1001110010001111 0001000101010001 0100100000011111 1110111101111011 0001001000101010 1010010010010100 1111111100000010 1101101000000111 signal routing on the FPGA. Lookup tables or macro cells perform boolean operations on input signals to the tables. These boolean operations are the functional behavior of the design as specified by the designer.
The designer can verify that the simulated system will respond correctly even in extreme conditions. 1 compares implementing the device in real hardware, such as an ASIC technology, to using an HDL software simulator to verify the design first. 1 Real Hardware versus HDL Software Simulator Real Hardware HDL Software Simulator Speed Real time Visibility Compile time Debugging tools Checkpoint Cost Testbench required Simulation coverage Poor Poor Up to 10 clocks/s Excellent Fast Poor Excellent No Very high No Yes Low Yes High Low 22 CHAPTER 3 highest speed and the highest coverage, but unless the chip has minimal functionality, the chances of getting it right without verification are extremely small.
This is very important during debugging. The Bad News Emulators are complex pieces of machinery requiring huge investments in hardware. They are extremely expensive as they use many of the largest and most expensive FPGA devices per board, and many boards per system. Getting a design into an emulator can also be extremely challenging. Partitioning a design so that it fits into the emulator properly is very hard. The compile times of large designs are 24 h or more. This means that a typical debug cycle iteration becomes much more than a day.