Neuropsychology

Assessment Issues in Child Neuropsychology by Michael G. Tramontana, Stephen R. Hooper

By Michael G. Tramontana, Stephen R. Hooper

Neuropsychology has its roots in scientific neurology. studying case de­ scriptions by means of nineteenth century neurologists, comparable to Wernicke's painstakingly particular examinations of sufferers with the "aphasic symptom-complex," makes it seen that neuropsychology isn't really a brand new self-discipline. Even the wedding with psychology isn't really new; the neurologist Arnold choose, for instance, used to be absolutely conversant with the advancements in modern mental in addition to linguistic study. although, the first concentration of nineteenth and early twentieth century psychology used to be on "general psychology," and just a small variety of psychologists ventured into what then was once referred to as "differential psychology" (the psychology of person dif­ ferences) together with a number of who turned connected to neurological examine and rehabilitation devices after global conflict I. It remained until eventually international conflict II for psychologists to set up a extra strong operating courting with neurology. What psychology needed to supply to neurology used to be its experimental ability, the advance of a worldly technique, and, for scientific paintings, the advance of psychometrics. typically, the wedding among the 2 disciplines has been fruitful, resulting in new insights, versions, and discoveries approximately brain-behavior relationships, documented in numerous textbooks which seemed in speedy succession because the Sixties. In medical perform, neuropsychology has been artistic in a few respects, in others basically introducing psychometric rigor to already latest neurological examinations. As defined in larger aspect during this ebook, developmental neuropsy­ chology is of much more contemporary origin.

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1969). Specifically, the inclusion of a General Academic Skills factor, together with the greater number of discrete factors that constitute the LNNB-CR, points toward the presence of important differences in the composition of these two batteries. , 1984) and as much as 86% agreement in children with psychiatric disorders (Tramontana, Sherrets, & Wolf, 1983). In the Tramontana et a1. (1983) study, however, differences in the results of the two batteries were apparent at a closer level of inspection.

However, the process would be more efficient if the basic composition of the tests in question were aligned more closely with relevant aspects of neuropsychological functioning. Thus, in contrast to standard cognitive testing, the tests or measures making up a neuropsychological assessment are selected, designed, or adapted to facilitate the conceptualization of a child's performance in terms of known or hypothesized brain-behavior relationships. Although virtually any measure of a child's abilities may be used in making neuropsychological inferences, some measures are better than others in revealing specific aspects of neuropsychological functioning.

TRAMONTANA and STEPHEN R. HOOPER important to apply more conservative rules for diagnosing neuropsychological impairment in children with psychiatric disorders because there appears to be a greater likelihood of false-positive errors in diagnosis with this population. Following this line of thinking, Tramontana and Hooper (1987) were able to distinguish adolescent psychiatric referrals with and without documented brain damage at a 76% rate of overall accuracy, which was a substantial improvement over the results obtained with the use of standard cutoffs for defining impaired performance.

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