By William H. Schlesinger (Auth.)
Biogeochemistry is the learn of the geochemical reactions that happen within the surroundings, oceans, and crustal minerals of the Earth's floor as laid low with residing organisms. this article examines worldwide alterations that experience happened and are happening in water, air, and on land, and relates them to the worldwide cycles of water, carbon, nitrogen, phosphorous and sulphur. The textual content is meant for college students and execs within the environmental, geochemical and ecological disciplines
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T h e t h e r m a l instability of t h e t r o p o s p h e r e is largely responsible for t h e global p a t t e r n s of a t m o s p h e r i c circulation (Fig. 3a,b). T h e large a n n u a l receipt of solar e n e r g y at t h e e q u a t o r causes w a r m i n g of t h e a t m o s p h e r e (sensible heat) a n d t h e e v a p o r a t i o n of large a m o u n t s of water, carrying latent heat, from tropical oceans a n d rain forests. As this w a r m , moist air rises, it cools, p r o d u c i n g a large a m o u n t of precipitation in equatorial areas.
11 d a y ) . 5 3 T h e approximate altitudinal distribution of atmospheric constituents. From Walker (1977). 48 Processes and Reactions E x c h a n g e b e t w e e n t h e t r o p o s p h e r e of t h e n o r t h e r n a n d s o u t h e r n h e m i s p h e r e s a n d e x c h a n g e b e t w e e n t h e t r o p o s p h e r e a n d t h e strat o s p h e r e have b e e n e x a m i n e d by following t h e fate of industrial pollutants released to t h e t r o p o s p h e r e a n d radioactive c o n t a m i n a n t s released to t h e s t r a t o s p h e r e d u r i n g t h e testing of atomic w e a p o n s d u r i n g t h e 1950s a n d early 1960s.
W e m i g h t also expect that t h e surface t e m p e r a t u r e o n Mars w o u l d be colder t h a n o n E a r t h , since t h e p l a n e t is m u c h f a r t h e r from t h e S u n . T h e a v e r a g e t e m p e r a t u r e o n Mars, — 53°C (Kieffer 1976), assures t h a t w a t e r is frozen in t h e soil y e a r - r o u n d . In t h e absence of liquid water, o n e m i g h t expect that t h e a t m o s p h e r e o n Mars would be mostly d o m i n a t e d by C 0 2 , which is mainly dissolved in seawater o n E a r t h .