By Walter Maurel, Yin Wu, Nadia Magnenat Thalmann, Daniel Thalmann
Numerous experiments mentioned within the biomechanical literature have proven that gentle tissues are hugely nonlinear viscoelastic fabrics. makes an attempt to version their mechanical behaviour have resulted in other forms of mathematical relationships reckoning on the procedure followed. using those versions for the sensible simulation of skeletal gentle tissues calls for easy wisdom of the idea of nonlinear mechanics in addition to wisdom of the linked incremental finite aspect tools. even though many files were released in those diversified parts, few of them supply sufficient info to appreciate how the versions are regarding the underlying mechanical concept and the way incremental equipment are utilized to accomplish finite point simulations.
This document has been built, as a part of the eu Esprit venture appeal, to supply an summary of the on hand types in mild of theoretical mechanics and finite aspect tools, for the lifelike simulation of the human muscle groups, tendons and skin.
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Extra resources for Biomechanical Models for Soft Tissue Simulation
Viscoelasticity. Skin is a viscoelastic tissue. Its stress-strain relationships are ratedependent and exhibit considerable hysteresis: in a cyclic process, the skin stressstrain relationship in loading is usually somewhat different from that in unloading. Skin exhibits stress relaxation under constant strain: when it is suddenly strained and then maintained for a period, the stress induced in the body decrease with time. Skin exhibits creep under constant stress: if the skin is suddenly stressed and then the stress is maintained constant, it continues afterwards to deform.
Not all muscle fibers are excited at the same time. The total contraction force of a muscle depends on how many fibers are stimulated. In general, smaller muscles that react rapidly and whose control is exact have small motor units and a large number of nerve fibers, whereas larger muscles which don't require a fine degree of control may have as many as a hundred muscle fibers for each motor unit (Fung 93c). The basic electrical stimulus of a motor unit is a short duration action potential, which can be considered as an impulse.
References 21 References This chapter is essentially based on (Crisp 72), (Fung 93abc), (Viidik 87), (Winter 90), (Elden 77), (Lanir 87), (CHARM D4). E. H. L. Trelstad (1991), Matrix assembly, in Cell Biology of Extracellular Matrix, 2nd edn. D. Hay. New York: Plenum Press W. W. Fawcett (1975), Skin, in A Textbook of Histology. lOth ed. B. Saunders Co. W. Maurel, Y. T. Cox (1942), The cleavage lines of skin, Br. J. C. C. Fung. New York: Prentice-Hall A. Cutts (1993), Muscle physiology and electromyography, in Mechanics of Human Joints: Physiology, Pathophysiology, and Treatment, ed.