Sports Medicine

Biomechanics of Engineering: Modelling, Simulation, Control by Adam Morecki

By Adam Morecki

Contents: A. Morecki: Modelling Mathematical Description, Measurements and keep watch over of the chosen Animal and Human physique Manipulations.- B. Herme, G. Heydinger, A. Cappozzo: Calculation of so much Transmitted of the Anatomical Joints.- S. Buisset: The Tension-Length and Force-Velocity Relationships of Human Muscle in Situ.- A. Pedotti, C. Frigo, R. Assente, G. Ferrigno: research of Human Locomotion via complicated applied sciences and Methodologies.

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Sample text

Trajectory c corresponds to an unsuccessful jump, in which the competitor has been thrown back to by the pole. Example test results are presented in Fig. 3. 05 ms- 1 . The influence of the vaulter's mass for constant paraneters of ~he pole is illustrated in Fig. 4. Further step in modelling of the pole vault was done by Hubl:::ord11 (1980). M:lre realistic system rrodel was proposed. A schematic diagram of the complete model is given in Fig. 5. 32 A. Morecki y 6 a - . . ,"

I I I I~ y R R=mg a-with control support point b-skier in turn Fig. 8 Inverted pendulum model 36 A. ) in vertical plane in order to minimize the tine of his descent. Figure 3. 9 shows force diagram. The force exerted on the skier during the shuss are the frictional force F, air resistance Q, lifting force Y, weight mg and normal reaction N. The displacement of the center of gravity of the skier-skis system in a fixed position down the even slope may be described then by the differential equation of the second order dv 2 -=-bv +a dt with constant coefficients, dx v = dt ' (3.

A very high inverse correlation was found between knee and back forces for all subjects. other important correlations were found, too. eight,one nrust rend both back (about 60%) and knees (aoout 90%) in order to minimize the average force. 10 shows some results obtained during the experiments. 46 A. :1 __ _ / Fig. 18. Trigonorretric and anthropcmetric rrodel of ·lifting. Cl( - back flexion angle; ~- hip flexion angle; ( - knee flexion angle; £ - angle tetween thigh and horizontal; S - angle tetween foot and leg; ~- angle tetween vertical and leg; B - center of rotation of the hip; G - center of rotation of the knee; a - distance tet-ween acranion and 3rd PIP joint; b - distance tetween Tl and 3rd coccygeal vertebra; c - distance tetween Tl and vertex; t - distance tetween greater trochanter and lateral condyle; 1 - distance between lateral femoral condyle and heel; h - height of the load.

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