By W.F. Chen, Lian Duan
With chapters culled from the acclaimed Bridge Engineering guide, Bridge Engineering: Substructure layout specializes in many of the elements comprising and affecting bridge substructures. those comprise bearings, piers and columns, towers, abutments and keeping constructions, footings and foundations, and bridge hydraulics. for every part, the contributing writer addresses some of the sorts of that part, discusses particular choice or layout standards, and gives thorough references. different suitable subject matters studied during this quantity contain geotechnical concerns, resembling box exploration recommendations and location characterization, and designing bridges to reduce the opportunity of and harm as a result of vessel collisions.
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Additional resources for Bridge Engineering: Substructure Design (Principles and Applications in Engineering)
Transverse Case 2 Max. 2 Design of a Two-Column Bent Design the columns of a two-span overcrossing. 9. The concrete box girder is supported by a two-column bent and is subjected to HS20 loading. The columns are pinned at the bottom of the columns. Therefore, only the loads at the top of columns are given here. 3 lists all the forces due to live load plus impact. 4 lists the forces due to seismic loads. 0 will be assumed for the columns. 22 m) in diameter. Provide 26-#9 (26-#30) longitudinal reinforcement.
Apply Eq. 22 or Eq. 23 to calculate the confinement reinforcement. For seismic analysis, the unreduced seismic shear forces should be compared with the shear forces due to plastic hinging of columns. The smaller should be used. The plastic hinging analysis procedure is discussed elsewhere in this handbook and will not be repeated here. The lateral reinforcement for both columns are shown as follows. For left column: Vu = 148 kips (659 kN) (shear due to plastic hinging governs) φVn = 167 kips (743 kN) ∴ No lateral reinforcement is required for shear.
Concrete placing heights are usually restricted to about 6 to 12 m to limit form pressure from the freshly placed concrete. Reinforcing bar cages are usually preassembled on the ground or on a work barge, and lifted into position by crane. This requires the main loadcarrying reinforcing bars to be spliced with each lift. Lapped splices are the easiest to make, but are not allowed in seismic areas. Slip forming is an alternative method that uses forms that are pulled slowly upward, reinforcing bars positioned and the concrete placed in one continuous operation around the clock until the tower is completed.