Carbon Cycling in the Baltic Sea by Karol Kulinski, Janusz Pempkowiak

By Karol Kulinski, Janusz Pempkowiak

The Baltic Sea is a space commonly explored by way of the oceanographers. for this reason it really is the most frequently defined marine parts within the medical literature. despite the fact that, there are nonetheless numerous fields that are poorly investigated and pronounced by means of scientists. one in every of them is the carbon cycle of the Baltic Sea. even though it is assumed the shelf seas are liable for approximately 20% of all marine carbon dioxide uptake, whereas they represent simply 7% of the total sea floor, nonetheless a systematic debate exists at the function of the Baltic Sea within the international carbon cycle. “Carbon cycle of the Baltic Sea” is meant to be a complete presentation and dialogue of cutting-edge learn via biogeochemists serious about the Baltic Sea carbon cycle study. This paintings provides either qualitative and quantitative descriptions of the most carbon flows within the Baltic Sea in addition to their attainable shifts triggered by means of climatic and worldwide change.

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The steady state global carbon cycle had been disturbed by human activity (Sect. 2). According to the 4th IPCC report (IPCC 2007), the anthropogenic CO2 emission to the atmosphere has been increasing yearly. 4 Pg C year-1, being remarkably higher (by 80%) than the emission recorded in 1970. This represents more than 8% of the natural CO2 exchange between land and sea, and over 11% of exchange between the ocean and the atmosphere (Emerson and Hedges 2008). Estimated that, in the period from 1800 to 1994, nearly 244 Pg C reached the atmosphere as a result of anthropogenic activity.

The basin consists of regions characterized by a low primary productivity and large terrestrial organic matter inflow (the Gulf of Bothnia), through highly productive areas, located in the central and southern part of the basin, to highly eutrophic regions specific for the main rivers mouths (Voipio 1981; Hagström et al. 2001; Nausch et al. 2008; Wasmund and Siegel 2008). This situation is reflected in the direction and rate of CO2 exchange through the water/atmosphere interface. 36 2 Climate and Carbon Cycle The Gulf of Bothnia is considered to be a source of CO2 to the atmosphere, which is attributed to intensive mineralization of organic matter supplied to the Gulf with the river runoff and limited, especially when compared with the southern Baltic, phytoplankton activity (Algesten et al.

4. Weathering involves physical and chemical processes. The latter, named chemical weathering, is caused by the atmospheric CO2, that, combined with H2O, reacts with carbonate and silicate rocks. The result of weathering are ions, which, together with river water, are discharged to the ocean. It is estimated that twothirds of this load is represented by ions derived from carbonates, mostly CaCO3, and the remaining one-third from silicates, weathering. 2 Global Carbon Cycle 21 Fig. 8 Scheme of the global carbon cycle (Emerson and Hedges 2008).

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