By Eduard Imhof
Eduard Imhof's vintage booklet Cartographic reduction Presentation is once more to be had. in the self-discipline of cartography, few works are thought of classics within the feel of protecting their curiosity, relevance, and concept with the passage of time. One such paintings is Imhof's masterpiece on reduction illustration. As a different reveal of research and portrayal, this can be an excellent instance of the necessity for cartography to mix mind and snap shots in fixing map layout difficulties. the diversity, aspect, and medical artistry of his options are provided in a educating context that places this paintings in a category on its own, with common importance.
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In addition, errors arise through thick ground cover and for other reasons. Consequently, photogrammetric contour lines are, in certain cases and to a certain degree, objectively and subjectively inaccurate. We will return to this subject in Section B8 of this chapter. The need to check and supplement photogrammetric mapping by topographers in the field cannot be avoided. Many things can only be properly recognized and evaluated on the ground and from another viewpoint. On the whole, however, photogrammetry has led to extraordinary progress in topographic mapping from the qualitative as well as the quantitative and economic points of view.
This test method, however, has gaps and does not cover all aspects of the contour image. Above all, it does not adequately test the small changes in contour lines. e. of nature and the map. Sometimes nature is replaced here by the method of random sampling; by especially accurate control contour mapping of small areas. 6. Some additional methods oi examining contour lines The shortcomings of the testing technique which employs the Koppe formula have repeatedly given rise to criticism; especially since the development of photogrammetry.
Naturally, they did not come into general practice until topographic surveys had made sufficient progress and this did not occur before the beginning of the 19th century. The contour is also primarily ficticious in character. It does, however, possess the extraordinary advantage of recording and conveying, in a satisfactory manner, the geometric form of the terrain, elevations, differences in elevation, the angles and directions of slopes, and so Further advances led to methods of representation which are still in use today and, hence, they will be discussed, in detail, in a number of the chapters of this book, historical references being made where necessary.