By Richard M. Bateman
This ebook addresses important matters, corresponding to the evaluate of shale fuel reservoirs and their creation. subject matters contain the cased-hole logging setting, reservoir fluid homes; move regimes; temperature, noise, cement bond, and pulsed neutron logging; and casing inspection. creation logging charts and tables are integrated within the appendices. The paintings serves as a finished reference for construction engineers with upstream E&P businesses, good logging provider corporation staff, college scholars, and petroleum education professionals.
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Extra resources for Cased-Hole Log Analysis and Reservoir Performance Monitoring
3 500 B/D 3 Reservoir Fluid Properties PVT Refresher Course For a complete understanding of the behavior of producing wells, it is necessary to keep in mind the fundamental principles that govern the properties of hydrocarbon liquids and gases. Only then can downhole flow rates be accurately found from surface flow rates. The correct choice of a flowmeter tool depends on the expected flow rate and whether or not free gas is present will influence the choice of a fluidtyping tool. In order to keep clear the different sets of conditions of pressure, volume, and temperature, subscripts will be used in this text as follows: b Bubble-point bc Brine concentration g Gas o Oil s Solution sc Standard conditions w Water wf Well flowing conditions (at depth) Additionally, the following symbols will be used: C Concentration ρ Density q Flow rate B Formation volume factor R Gas/oil ratio or solubility p Pressure γ Specific gravity T Temperature μ Viscosity © Richard M.
4 Bubble-point and dew-point determination for a multicomponent system. Courtesy Schlumberger PVT Refresher Course 21 Fig. 5 Phase diagram of a normal GOR well. 5 shows a plot of pressure vs. temperature for an oil-producing reservoir. At formation conditions, pressure and temperature are such as to place point A′, representing the original conditions, above the critical pressure. The multicomponent hydrocarbon therefore exists as an undersaturated liquid. As the pressure in the reservoir is drawn down by the production process, point A—the bubble-point—is reached.
The behavior of natural gases is non ideal. Thus, the ideal gas law needs a “fudge factor” to make it truly reflect the behavior of natural hydrocarbon gases. This fudge factor is given the symbol Z and is known as the supercompressibility factor. The ideal gas law can then be re-written as: V p 1 1 T = sc = ´ sc ´ wf Bg Vwf Z Twf psc If the Z factor is known for the conditions encountered and the gas in question, then Bg may be found by direct solution of this equation. However, Z is not normally known.