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1984), and a 3-6% increase in cell volume is sufficient to activate CI-, and perhaps K', channels in the plasma membranes of Ehrlich ascites tumor cells (Hudson and Schultz, 1988). Likewise, SA channels appear to be exquisitely sensitive. For example, (1) the SA K' channel in the basolateral membrane of Necturus proximal tubule cells can be activated by membrane tensions that could be generated by as little as a I% increase in cell volume (Sackin, 1987); (2) the cation-selective SA channel 'Cahalan and Lewis (1987) have reported evidence derived from whole-cell patch recordings that exposure of T lymphocytes to a hypotonic medium results in activation of CIchannels and a secondary activation of voltage-dependent K' channels.
1971). 111. SUMMARY Knowledge of the state of intracellular Na' is fundamental to a comprehensive study of transepithelial transport. We have examined this issue in three ways. One approach has been to quantify immobilization by 23Na NMR spectroscopy. A second approach has been to quantify compartmentalization by comparing the apparent activity coefficient for intracelM a r Na' with the activity coefficient of Na' in simple aqueous solution. A third approach has been to examine the heterogeneity of distribution of intracellular Na' by the combined application of electrophysiological and electron microprobe techniques.
W. (1981). “Experimental Pulse NMR,” pp. 106-112. Addison-Wesley, Reading, Massachusetts. Gadian, D. G. (1982). ” Clarendon, Oxford. Garcia-Diaz, J. , Baxendale, L. , (1985). Cell K activity in frog skin in the presence and absence of cell current. J. Membr. Biol. 85, 143- 158. , and Gilboa, H. (1978). Sodium exchange between two sites: The binding of sodium to halotolerant bacteria. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 538, 268-2233, Gullans, S. , Avison, M. , and Shulman, R. G. (1985). NMR measurements of intracellular sodium in the rabbit proximal tubule.