Circuits

Charge-based CMOS Digital RF Transmitters by Pedro Emiliano Paro Filho, Jan Craninckx, Piet Wambacq, Mark

By Pedro Emiliano Paro Filho, Jan Craninckx, Piet Wambacq, Mark Ingels

This ebook introduces a very novel structure which may sit back the trade-off latest this present day among noise, energy and zone intake in a truly compatible resolution for complex instant communique platforms. in the course of the mixture of charge-domain operation with incremental signaling, this structure provides the easiest of either worlds, supplying the decreased sector and excessive portability of digital-intensive architectures with a higher out-of-band noise functionality given by way of intrinsic noise filtering features. Readers might be enabled to layout larger functionality radio front-ends that devour much less strength and zone, specially with appreciate to the transmitter and tool amplifier designs, thought of via many the “battery killers” on so much cellular devices.

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W RES [k] [k-1] [k] DWTOTAL = DWMILL+DWRES #BUCKETS = f(DWTOTAL) DWRES[k] WRES[k-1] DWMILL[k] Fig. 4 Top-level description of the reservoir-based operation. Following the input command, the control system determines how much water should be added or subtracted from the reservoir to (or subtracted from) the reservoir (WTOTAL Œk) will depend on two parameters in this case: How much water will be subtracted while driving the rotating wheel (WMILL ) during the given period of time, and the amount of water required to bring the reservoir level—and hence the water flow—to its next value (WRES D WRES Œk WRES Œk 1) as defined by the input command.

Besides the also increased bandwidth of both V1 and V2, one of the most relevant issues regarding the outphasing architecture is the fact the power combiner should combine the power of two amplifiers with different output signals. The output impedance variation at both amplifier outputs creates a time-varying voltage division and hence unwanted cross-dependence between both amplifiers, typically implying distortion [Raz12]. From the aforementioned analysis, it is concluded that both polar and outphasing architectures can be very well suited as alternatives to increase the power efficiency of both transmitter and PA at large backoff conditions.

Noise/ /A ! 9) It can be concluded as a result that: First, for a purely capacitive load the noise cutoff frequency does not depend on the output capacitance, nor the sampling speed. Second, the equivalent noise cutoff frequency scales with the output signal’s amplitude and frequency, meaning that for a fixed output frequency the noise cutoff frequency is divided by 2 when the output swing is halved (improving noise filtering). 18 shows the noise cutoff frequency [Eq. 7)] versus output frequency for various amplitudes.

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