By Steve Owen, Caroline Ahmed, Chris Martin, Roger Woodward
Chemistry for the IB degree, moment version, covers in complete the necessities of the IB syllabus for Chemistry for first exam in 2016. the second one variation of this well-received Coursebook is totally up to date for the IB Chemistry syllabus for first exam in 2016, comprehensively masking all specifications. Get the easiest insurance of the syllabus with transparent evaluate statements, and hyperlinks to conception of information, International-mindedness and Nature of technology issues. examination practise is supported with lots of pattern examination questions, on-line try out questions and examination counsel. Chapters masking the choices and Nature of technology, review tips and solutions to questions are incorporated within the extra on-line fabric to be had with the publication.
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Determine the identity of the element M. We can use PV = nRT to work out the number of moles of oxygen. 31 × 288 We can now use the balanced chemical equation to work out the number of moles of M2O3. From the chemical equation, 9 mol O2 react to form 2 mol M2O3. 69 × 10−3 The formula of the compound is M2O3, and its molar mass is 198 g mol−1. 92) therefore the element M is arsenic. 80 g of water? 0 mol 3 What is the sum of the coefficients when the following equation is balanced with the smallest possible whole numbers?
2 Calculations involving volumes of gases Learning objectives Real gases and ideal gases • Understand Avogadro’s law An ‘ideal gas’ is a concept invented by scientists to approximate (model) the behaviour of real gases. Under normal conditions (around 100 kPa [approximately 1 atmosphere] pressure and 0 °C) real gases such as hydrogen behave pretty much like ideal gases and the approximations work very well. Two assumptions we make when defining the ideal gas are that the molecules themselves have no volume (they are point masses) and that no forces exist between them (except when they collide).
Examples are hydrated copper sulfate (CuSO4·5H2O) and hydrated magnesium chloride (MgCl2·6H2O). The water is necessary for the formation of the crystals and is called water of crystallisation. Substances that contain water of crystallisation are described as hydrated, whereas those that have lost their water of crystallisation are described as anhydrous. So, we talk about ‘hydrated copper sulfate’ (CuSO4·5H2O) and ‘anhydrous copper sulfate’ (CuSO4). Hydrated copper sulfate can be obtained as large blue crystals, but anhydrous copper sulfate is white and powdery.