By Niels Ole Bernsen, Guy A. Orban, Wolf Singer
This publication experiences the growth made in Europe during the last decade within the box of Cognitive Neuroscience and issues out recommendations for the longer term.
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Extra resources for Cognitive Neuroscience: Research Directions In Cognitive Science: European perspectives, volume 4
The scientific offsprings of Hubel and Wiesel have lived and probably still live with the belief that once orientation selectivity, ocular dominance, wavelength selectivity and possibly 2 VISUAL NEUROSCIENCE 21 direction selectivity are described, all the properties of visual cortical cells are described and that the only task left is to find out how these properties are grouped in the cortex and how these properties come about developmentally. The Cambridge group and its many followers have introduced gratings and the Fourier analysis idea into visual neuroscience.
Functions such as language and reasoning seem to be typically human. The techniques available for investigation of these cognitive functions are mainly indirect although recordings from human brains have been obtained during surgery. Because of the importance of language and reasoning, neurophysiology has a special status in cognitive neuroscience (see chapter by Vallar). One should however face the difficulty of indirect methods. The best one can do is to answer partially the first question, that of localisation.
This makes the recovery of the full velocity vector a "problem" which can be solved by combining outputs from elongated mechanisms with different orientations. The matching or correspondence problem arises when the images of an object in two distinct frames, provided by two input devices (such as the two eyes) or by one input device at different instances, have to be matched to compute the disparity (difference in position in the two input devices) or the motion of the object. This entails á strategy to determine which pixel, line fragment or object in one frame corresponds to a pixel, line fragment or object in the other.