By A. C. Meigh
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Extra resources for Cone Penetration Testing. Methods and Interpretation
They recommend that a modification of the system proposed by Clark and Walker (1977) should be used for the classification of calcareous soils containing 9 0 % or more of carbonate, as shown in Figure 31. F o r these Western Australian carbonate soils, Beringen et al. found a reasonable correlation between friction ratio and cone resistance (representing degree of cementation), cemented conditions being characterised by high cone resistance and relatively low friction ratios (see Figure 32). In Figure 33, friction ratios for offshore Bombay clays with a carbonate content varying between 40 and 7 0 % are compared with friction ratios quoted by D e Ruiter (1975) for N o r t h Sea soils.
With significant sample disturbance, strengths may well fall below the 'mass' strength. Plate-loading tests give a better basis for comparison provided that the tests are of a sufficient size to take into full account the effect of the fissures. However, they can be misleading, if significant softening takes place before the start of the test, which may happen if tests are carried out below groundwater level, or if drainage occurs during the test. Figure 26 presents some values of cone factor, based o n undrained shear strength back-calculated from plate-loading tests, for marine clays and glacial clays.