By J.R. Becker
Becker explains the actual chemical difficulties linked to waxes and emulsions and the recent applied sciences for therapy of those difficulties. Contents: Petroleum businesses and emulsions Forces excited by macroscopic actual habit of emulsions Oil and water emulsion breakers Petroleum businesses and waxes Chemical surfaces Wax crystal order and temperature Wax: actual houses and quantum results Ashaltenes and crude oil Ashaltenes: bulk habit and checking out equipment actual houses of treating chemical substances Appendices
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1959 Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. 56th ed. Cleveland: CRC Press, 1975–1976. 29 2 Forces Involved in Emulsions Chemical Complexity of Crude Oil Emulsions Emulsions are not just pure water in oil, or oil in water, but complex mixtures of a large variety of chemical structures that partition into the phase that provides the most stable environment. The oil phase is comprised of chemicals that exhibit a wide variety of functionality and structure, as Figure 2–1 shows. ) are also present in crude oils.
The first thing to do is to investigate the number of collisions per second that a sphere makes. This is called the collision number and is denoted by the following: Z1 = √ 2πσ2vN* The next thing to do is determine the number of collisions that will occur per unit volume per unit of time. ” This leads to the following result for the collision frequency: Z11 = 1/√ 2πσ2v (N*)2 In the case of the stearic acid emulsion described in the section on aggregate number, the radius of the emulsion was given as 1 micron (µ), thus the diameter σ for the emulsion is 2µ.
1–8 Loss of hydrogen to polar phase Petroleum Companies and Emultions 23 Fig. 1–9 Water-in-oil emulsion Section I, Chapter 1 24 Fig. 1–10 Sorbitan mono-oleate in an oil/water mixture Petroleum Companies and Emultions 25 Section I, Chapter 1 If the fatty tail or alkyl group is highly branched, or contains ring structures, the forces of interaction (London dispersion forces) tend to be weaker than those possessed by linear alkyl groups, since orderly arrangement of bulky groups is energetically less favored.