Circuits

Crystal Oscillator Circuits by Robert J. Matthys

By Robert J. Matthys

A brand new harmonic oscillator circuit (which is the simplest in its type) and a brand new bridge oscillator circuit were further to this variation; either circuits are of remarkable functionality. This useful treatise additionally areas every kind of oscillator circuits in a standard framework to give an explanation for their layout and study their functionality. real operating circuits are given for the entire easy kinds, and comparisons are made among them. the full frequency diversity is roofed, from 1 kHz to a hundred mHz.

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An advantage of this circuit is that the crystal sees a very low resistance load. This low resistance load consists mostly of the emitter’s input resistance, which is much lower than RI. A disadvantage is that circuit waveforms vary with the circuit’s stray capacitance, because loop gain is almost high enough to oscillate at any frequency. 11. MODIFIED MEACHAM The Meacham [S, 171 is a resistance-bridge circuit, as shown in Fig. 24. The crystal is located in one arm of the bridge. 24. Meacham resistance bridge.

7 = 3O’to cover the losses of the two RC networks. 5. 18 its series-resistance value. 18 the PIERCE 49 crystal’s series resistance. With the known frequency of oscillation, the actual capacitance value can be calculated. To minimize loading effects of the crystal’s internal series resistance R, on C1, the reactance of C, should be much lower than the series resistance of the crystal, say l/5 of it, which means that C, should be approximately equal to Cp. This also means that RI should be approximately equal to the crystal’s internal series resistance R,.

13. The circuit is very similar to the low capacitance load circuit in Fig. 12~ except for the crystal loading. The crystal is driven by as low a resistance as possible, RI,. 25 Rhi) that act as a 5 to 1 voltage divider to isolate the amplifier’s overload peak-clipping effects from the crystal. The amplifier’s input stage is a FET in order to make the amplifier’s input resistance as high as possible and minimize crystal loading. The 5 to 1 voltage divider provides a linear impedance to the crystal that will not put a short circuit across the crystal over a part of the waveform cycle, as the Colpitts circuit does.

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