By Keith L. Richards

The Engineering Council (UK) have suggested an encouraging elevate within the functions for Engineering Technician (Eng. Tech) registration, either from candidates following a work-based studying software and participants with no formal skills yet who've verifiable competence via sizeable operating reports and self-study.

**Design Engineer's Case reports and Examples** has been written for those younger engineers. The contents were chosen on commonplace matters that constructing engineers should be anticipated to hide of their specialist occupation and provides suggestions to general difficulties that can come up in mechanical design.

The matters coated comprise the following:

- Introduction to emphasize calculations
- Basic shaft design
- Beams lower than bending
- Keys and spline power calculations
- Columns and struts
- Gears
- Material selection
- Conversions and common tables

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**Additional info for Design Engineer's Case Studies and Examples**

**Example text**

5 Identification of beam sections. 625 × 106 mm4) All structural steel catalogues and steel designer manuals quote the physical properties of the sections in cm rather than mm. It will be found to be more convenient to convert to mm when constructing a table to calculate the positions of the neutral axes and second moment of areas. 5 so that a table can now be constructed to calculate the physical properties of the total section. 4) 8 y w= 8. I. σ L2. y. 6. 2, Case 12). 48 × 10 –3 mm From this example it can be clearly seen that the maximum deflection of the beam in encastré is significantly less than the beam had it been simply supported.

Determine the forces being exerted on the shaft. i. Resolve the radial forces into orthogonal components (vertical and horizontal forces). j. Resolve the final reactions on the end supports (bearings) in each plane. k. Analyse each critical point on the shaft to determine the minimum acceptable diameter to ensure adequate SFs for the loading at that point on the shaft. In general these critical points will include where a change in diameter will take place, where higher values of torque and bending moments will occur, together with stress concentrations that also occur.

This example is not restricted to rotating shafts but can equally be applied to brackets or other nonrotating components. In the first instance the bending moment (M) needs to be calculated and then the twisting moment (T) requires evaluation. 1. When designing shafts or components subjected to combined torsion and bending for maximum strength, the material selected will determine the nature of the failure. e. 1 Notation M I σ y E R T J τ r G θ L ME TE Maximum bending moment Moment of inertia (second moment of area) Extreme fibre stress due to bending Distance from the neutral axis to extreme fibre Modulus of elasticity Radius of bending on neutral axis Twisting moment or torque Polar moment of inertia Maximum shear stress due to twisting Radius of circular section Modulus of rigidity Angle of twist over length Length Equivalent bending moment due to combined bending and torque Equivalent torque due to combined moment and torque Nm m4 Pa m N/m2 m Nm m4 Pa m N/m2 Radians m Nm Nm For ductile materials such as mild steel, failure is considered to occur when the greatest shear stress reaches the maximum shear stress at the elastic limit in a simple tension test.