Designing With Operational Amplifiers: Applications by Jerald G. Graeme

By Jerald G. Graeme

This easy-to-use publication can be a pragmatic reference for circuit designers and clients of operational amplifiers in lots of varied engineering and clinical fields.

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1 below is a sample VHDL hardware specification. 1 Combinational logic in VHDL 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 -- Lines starting with -- are comments in VHDL. all; entity simpleLogicGates is port ( x1,x2,x3 : in std_logic; x : in std_logic_vector(3 downto 0); y : out std_logic_vector(4 downto 0)); end simpleLogicGates; architecture combinational of simpleLogicGates is begin y(0) <= (x1 and x2) or x3; y(2 downto 1) <= (x1&x(0)) AND (x2&x(1)); y(4 downto 3) <= x(3 downto 2); end combinational; The first three statements are IEEE standardized libraries to facilitate synthesis [6].

Nature 120:363–364 6. Lorenz EN (1963) Deterministic nonperiodic flow. J Atmos Sci 20:130–141 7. Matsumoto T (1984) A chaotic attractor from Chua’s circuit. IEEE Trans Circuits Syst CAS 31(12):1055–1058 8. Chua LO (2011) Chua’s circuit. In: Scholarpedia. org/article/Chua_ circuit. Accessed 25 Dec 2012 9. Muthuswamy B et al (2009) A Synthetic inductor implementation of Chua’s circuit. In: University of California, Berkeley, EECS Technical Reports. html. Accessed 22 Nov 2014 10. Sprott JC (2010) Elegant chaos.

44 2 Designing Hardware for FPGAs Fig. 17 System with a single synchronous clock. Each module uses a single pulse generator that has an enable pulse that is exactly 20 ns wide. This pulse acts as a synchronous trigger input for the subsequent module Reset Seconds Counter pulseOut clockIn Reset enableIn Minutes Counter pulseOut clockIn Reset enableIn Hours Counter clockIn One way to visualize an FSM is using State Machine Diagrams. The state transition diagram for the single pulse generator is shown in Fig.

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