Science Studies

Dinosaur (DK Eyewitness Books) by David Lambert

By David Lambert

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Such ornithomimids, or ostrich dinosaurs, were theropods with toothless beaks for snacking on plants and small creatures. Speed was their only defense and, like ostriches, a herd of ornithomimids could sprint from danger at up to 40 mph (64 kph). Ankle joint Long metatarsal (foot bone) Phalanx (toe bone) Ostriches in the Etosha salt pan, Namibia 50 Three-fingered hand on short forelimb PLODDING GIANT Large sauropods, such as Vulcanodon, trudged along very slowly. Their solid limb bones and short shin, foot, and toe bones had evolved not for running, but to support a huge, heavy body.

Parallel rows of washtub-sized depressions like this one pockmark rocks at Purgatoire in Colorado. They tell us that a herd of diplodocid dinosaurs (huge sauropods with a long neck and long tail) passed by some time late in the Jurassic Period. ” Ilium (hip bone) Inner toe print Hip height Small dinosaur’s hindfeet leave lighter impressions on mud Wet surface layer of mud Mudflat Iguanodon skeleton Length of foot CALCULATING SIZE An Iguanodon might have measured anything from 26 to 40 ft (8–12 m) in length.

Large meat-eaters, such as Tyrannosaurus, had massive necks, while smaller theropods, such as Velociraptor, had slim necks that uncoiled like springs when attacking prey. Muscles running along the topside of the neck raised the head BRACED FOR HEADY HEIGHTS Powerful neck muscles lifted Brachiosaurus’s head and a strong heart pumped blood up to its brain. This sauropod’s neck was supported at the base in the same way that the movable jib (projecting arm) of a crane is supported by a tower and base.

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